Minefield in the Manger: Supersessionism and Anti-Judaism in Advent and Christmas

Advent and Christmas are the seasons many Christians love best, yet they are shot through with almost intractable challenges—and no, I’m not talking about the pressures of consumerism and secularism during the run-up to Christmas. In a way, that’s the least of the church’s problems in these seasons. I’m talking about our age-old reliance on a simplistic, often erroneous, and sometimes contemptuous view of Jesus’ people, ‘the Jews,’ to make the seasons bright.

The problem is acute during Lent and Holy Week too. It always has been (it was the season of pogroms in the Middle Ages); but these days we are somehow more aware of and sensitive to the issue of anti-Judaism in that solemn season, most of us having rejected by now the old libel that ‘the Jews’ killed Jesus and many of us having started to speak more precisely about of the meaning of Jesus’ death so that we don’t wittingly or unwittingly claim the triumph of church over synagogue and the replacing of the ‘old covenant’ with ‘the new.

But Advent, being a gentler and more subtle season, is also a sneakier one when it comes to this stuff. Our Christian sentimentality is loathe to police our biblical texts, prayers, and hymns, and more reluctant to rework our assumptions about what is happening theologically in Advent and Christmas in order to redress the ancient wrongs of Christian triumphalism and supercessionism.

We may be aware of the issue in Advent and Christmas, but only in general terms, and we might therefore miss the telling details that add up to the ‘contempt’ we say we want, in principle anyway, to avoid for the sake of not adding anything more, however small, to the historically violent mess we’ve already made of Christian relations with and understandings of Jews.

And so we still rely on culled verses from the prophets, mostly Isaiah, to support the case for Jesus as the foretold messiah. To be sure, for Christian purposes there is nothing wrong with this kind of fulfillment theology (fulfilling is not the same as superceding). It’s really okay for us to read the other Testament christologically, as long as it’s not the only lens we ever bring to it, and as long as we understand and fully appreciate that it remains the Testament of an ongoing tradition not our own, and that therefore the texts are not ours alone to interpret–i. e., we can’t monopolize them or their meanings. But there is plenty wrong when we then proceed subtly (and not so subtly) to blame ‘the Jews’ for not agreeing with us that such prophetic texts point clearly to ‘the’ Messiah, while ignoring a zillion other texts that do not seem to point at all to Jesus as the One God chooses to redeem Israel, but to someone or something else.

We sing without a second thought about this (Christian) Messiah who comes to ransom ‘captive Israel,’ leaving the impression that without him, ‘Israel’ will be left to its captivity and perhaps be lost—as if God were not faithful forever, as if God has changed allegiances, switching to Christians and forgetting ‘the Jews.’

We proclaim the One sent by God who ‘came to his own, but they knew him not,’ and congratulate ourselves on having the perspicacity to see what they could or would not, being a stubborn people, or because they are always looking for the wrong kind of Messiah in all the wrong places, being also an obtuse people.

We unthinkingly and erroneously contrast Christ’s coming as a shivering child, hidden and poor, with the supposedly militaristic and monarchical messianic aspirations of ‘the Jews of Jesus’ time.’ We preach that they expected someone powerful in worldly terms, but God had a surprise up the divine sleeve. They got it wrong, but we got it right.

We say and sing and pray these things without once pausing to ask whether this contrast is actually true, or whether perhaps it is a libel against Jesus’ first century co-religionists, whose views of the Messiah and the messianic age were in fact rich and varied and often mutually contradictory and cannot be reduced to a few verses from prophets we find sympathetic to our cause.

We preach about the Gentiles coming into God’s embrace in the symbolic personages of the wise men from the East; and we give thanks that, in the person of our Messiah, God has overcome the supposed particularism and clannishness of ‘the Jews’ to open the gift of salvation to all. We particularly relish this idea in the progressive church, for we are exceedingly partial to inclusion and ‘extravagant welcome,’ and thus also much inclined to read Christian history as God’s rebuke of Israel’s supposed narrowness and exclusivity in favor of  Christianity’s ‘universality’ and openness—another libel we must somehow bring ourselves to face, even though it ruins our neat paradigms.

We also speak of the wondrous entrance of God into history in the person of Jesus of Nazareth as if this were the first time God had ever made God’s person and presence known in human affairs, effectively reducing Israel’s long history of down and dirty dealings with God to insignificance, at most a pale preamble to Jesus’ appearance in the womb of Mary.

We sing of the birth of Love among us, as if that love were a new thing, unheard of before the manger and stable, replacing ‘the God of the Old Testament’ who is so angry and mean.

And I could go on, having only scratched the surface. I won’t, because the question already rises—so if what I’m saying is in any way valid, what are we supposed to do, junk all our Advent songs and Christmas carols, our  songs, liturgies, and texts?

Well, I’m not saying we should or shouldn’t, although I am indeed hoping that some day Christian artists and liturgists and singers and poets and theologians will take this problem seriously enough to reconstruct Advent and Christmas along different and more fruitful lines, maybe working with Jews to do it—wouldn’t that be something? But none of that will happen unless Christians get real about the problem, confess it as a sin, and firmly resolve to do better.

This means taking our Jewish critics seriously, setting ourselves a program of serious study, and working patiently, day by day, year by year, to revise our assumptions, approaches, and liturgical ways and means to more fully reflect the particularity of the Christian hope without falling into contempt, triumphalism, or bearing false witness against our Jewish neighbors.

One thought on “Minefield in the Manger: Supersessionism and Anti-Judaism in Advent and Christmas

  1. Mary Vegetable

    Thank you for this thoughtful and honest piece which I hope will begin an important conversation in our church communities.
    I love singing those old hymns as much as anyone and have all the smells and other sweet nostalgic memories of the season that go with them, but have come to realized that these words I sing, and some of the prophetic texts have planted toxic concepts that are demeaning of my Jewish brothers and sisters, the integrity of their faith, and their own very treasured covenant. Our world is too small, and our God way too big for this kind of demeaning theology. We can worship a God who has unending love for all her children, without claiming that we are the favorite child.

    Reply

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